Nomenclature: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ

Systematic Nomenclature: NR1C2

Family: 1C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates. 

Contents

Gene and Protein Information
Species AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 441 6p21.2-p21.1 PPARD peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta 30
Mouse 440 17 13.5 cM Ppard peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta 18
Rat 440 20p12 Ppard peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta 37
Previous and Unofficial Names
PPARβ/δ
NUCII
FAAR
NUC1
PPARβ
PPARδ
NR1C2
peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, delta
Pparb
Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor delta
peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta
peroxisome proliferator activator receptor beta
peroxisome proliferator activator receptor, delta
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
PPARdelta/beta
PPAR-delta
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta
Pparb/d
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
NURSA Receptor
OMIM
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Selected 3D Structures
Image of receptor 3D structure from RCSB PDB
Description:  PPAR-δ ligand binding domain - cocrytallised with agonist
PDB Id:  1GWX
Ligand:  GW2433
Resolution:  2.5Å
Species:  Human
References:  38
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
Comments: Fatty acids and eisosanoids are natural ligands
Agonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
L-783483 Hs Full agonist 9.0 pKd 4
pKd 9.0 [4]
tretinoin Hs Full agonist 7.77 pKd 31
pKd 7.77 [31]
L-796449 Hs Full agonist 8.7 pKi 4,14
pKi 8.7 [4,14]
L-165041 Hs Full agonist 8.22 pKi 4,36
pKi 8.22 [4,36]
GW501516 Hs Full agonist 9.0 pEC50 27
pEC50 9.0 [27]
GW2433 Hs Full agonist 6.57 pEC50 5,36
pEC50 6.57 [5,36]
GW9578 Hs Full agonist 5.9 pEC50 6
pEC50 5.9 [6]
GW0742X Hs Full agonist 9.0 pIC50 12,33
pIC50 9.0 [12,33]
Agonist Comments
Endogenous fatty acid full agonists have also been reported with pIC50 values of 5.2 for the human isoform [38].
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
GSK0660 Hs Antagonist 6.5 pIC50 32
pIC50 6.5 (IC50 3x10-7 M) [32]
Main Co-regulators
Name Activity Specific Ligand dependent AF-2 dependent Comments References
NCOA1 Co-activator No No Yes 29
NCOA3 Co-activator No No Yes 26
NCOA6 Co-activator No Yes Yes 7
NCOR2 Co-repressor No No No 16,39
NCOR1 Co-repressor No No No 16,19,40
PPARGC1A Co-activator No No No 35
Main Target Genes
Name Species Effect Technique Comments References
ANGPTL4 angiopoietin-like 4 (FIAF: fast-induced adipose factor) Human Activated EMSA 23
Dffa (DFF45) Mouse Activated EMSA 10
Pdpk1 Mouse Activated EMSA, ChIP 11
Ilk Mouse Activated EMSA, ChIP 11
Pink1 Mouse Repressed EMSA, ChIP 11
Tissue Distribution
Ubiquitous
Expression level:  Medium
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot, Q-PCR.
References:  9
Functional Assays
Adipogenesis assay
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  3T3-C2 fibroblasts
Response measured:  Staining of lipids with oil Red O and GDPH activity for detection of terminal differentiation
References:  3
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

Show »

Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0000003 abnormal adipose tissue morphology PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0002152 abnormal brain morphology PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Dgen Ppardtm1Dgen/Ppardtm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:101884  MP:0000822 abnormal brain ventricle morphology
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0005450 abnormal energy expenditure PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Mtz|Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc Ppardtm1Mtz/Ppardtm1Mtz,Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:101884  MGI:2177412  MP:0001216 abnormal epidermal layer morphology PMID: 16751185 
Ppardtm2Rev Ppardtm2Rev/Ppardtm2Rev
involves: 129S4/SvJae
MGI:101884  MP:0002086 abnormal extraembryonic tissue morphology
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009115 abnormal fat cell morphology PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0005335 abnormal gonadal fat pad morphology PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0003704 abnormal hair follicle development PMID: 15713628 
Ppardtm1Mtz|Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc Ppardtm1Mtz/Ppardtm1Mtz,Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:101884  MGI:2177412  MP:0002655 abnormal keratinocyte morphology PMID: 16751185 
Ppard+|Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppard+
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0003453 abnormal keratinocyte physiology PMID: 11514592 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0001547 abnormal lipid level PMID: 12056592 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0000920 abnormal myelination PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1Dsvg/Ppardtm1Dsvg
involves: 129S2/SvPas
MGI:101884  MP:0001712 abnormal placenta development PMID: 16581799 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0001712 abnormal placenta development PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0001716 abnormal placenta labyrinth morphology PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Mtz|Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc Ppardtm1Mtz/Ppardtm1Mtz,Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:101884  MGI:2177412  MP:0001191 abnormal skin condition PMID: 16751185 
Ppardtm1Mtz|Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc Ppardtm1Mtz/Ppardtm1Mtz,Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:101884  MGI:2177412  MP:0002060 abnormal skin morphology PMID: 16751185 
ApcMin|Ppardtm1.1Rev ApcMin/ApcMin,Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
involves: C57BL/6J
MGI:101884  MGI:88039  MP:0003269 colon polyps PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009287 decreased abdominal fat pad weight PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0001265 decreased body size PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0000774 decreased brain size PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Mtz|Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc Ppardtm1Mtz/Ppardtm1Mtz,Tg(KRT14-cre)1Ipc/0
involves: C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:101884  MGI:2177412  MP:0003983 decreased cholesterol level PMID: 16751185 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0004200 decreased fetal size PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009295 decreased interscapular fat pad weight PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009584 decreased keratinocyte proliferation PMID: 15713628 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0010026 decreased liver cholesterol level PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0009356 decreased liver triglyceride level PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009299 decreased mesenteric fat pad weight PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0008844 decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue amount PMID: 11756685 
Ppard+|Ppardtm1Dgen Ppardtm1Dgen/Ppard+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:101884  MP:0003998 decreased thermal nociceptive threshold
Ppard+|Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppard+
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0002908 delayed wound healing PMID: 11514592 
Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1Dsvg/Ppardtm1Dsvg
involves: 129S2/SvPas
MGI:101884  MP:0003984 embryonic growth retardation PMID: 16581799 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0003984 embryonic growth retardation PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Dgen Ppardtm1Dgen/Ppardtm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:101884  MP:0006207 embryonic lethality during organogenesis
Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1Dsvg/Ppardtm1Dsvg
involves: 129S2/SvPas
MGI:101884  MP:0006207 embryonic lethality during organogenesis PMID: 16581799 
Ppardtm1.1Rev Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0006207 embryonic lethality during organogenesis PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0001222 epidermal hyperplasia PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0001552 increased circulating triglyceride level PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0005145 increased circulating VLDL cholesterol level PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0005281 increased fatty acid level PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0004499 increased incidence of chemically-induced tumors PMID: 15033975  15048110 
ApcMin|Ppardtm1.1Rev ApcMin/ApcMin,Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
involves: C57BL/6J
MGI:101884  MGI:88039  MP:0002404 increased intestinal adenoma incidence PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009580 increased keratinocyte apoptosis PMID: 15713628 
Ppard+|Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppard+
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0009583 increased keratinocyte proliferation PMID: 11514592 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0010300 increased skin tumor incidence PMID: 15033975 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0010024 increased total body fat amount PMID: 15001574 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0002020 increased tumor incidence PMID: 15033975 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0002957 intestinal adenocarcinoma PMID: 15048110 
Apc+|ApcMin|Ppardtm1Jps ApcMin/Apc+,Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * AKR/J * C57BL/6 * C57BL/6J
MGI:101884  MGI:88039  MP:0002957 intestinal adenocarcinoma PMID: 15033975 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0008011 intestine polyps PMID: 15048110 
Apc+|ApcMin|Ppardtm1Jps ApcMin/Apc+,Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * AKR/J * C57BL/6 * C57BL/6J
MGI:101884  MGI:88039  MP:0008011 intestine polyps PMID: 15033975 
ApcMin|Ppardtm1.1Rev ApcMin/ApcMin,Ppardtm1.1Rev/Ppardtm1.1Rev
involves: C57BL/6J
MGI:101884  MGI:88039  MP:0008011 intestine polyps PMID: 11756685 
Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1Dsvg/Ppardtm1Dsvg
involves: 129S2/SvPas
MGI:101884  MP:0001732 postnatal growth retardation PMID: 16581799 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0002080 prenatal lethality PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0002080 prenatal lethality PMID: 11514592 
Ppardtm2Rev Ppardtm2Rev/Ppardtm2Rev
involves: 129S4/SvJae
MGI:101884  MP:0002080 prenatal lethality
Ppardtm1Dsvg Ppardtm1Dsvg/Ppardtm1Dsvg
involves: 129S2/SvPas
MGI:101884  MP:0001921 reduced fertility PMID: 16581799 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0004947 skin inflammation PMID: 10866668 
Ppardtm1Jps Ppardtm1Jps/Ppardtm1Jps
involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6N
MGI:101884  MP:0002051 skin papilloma PMID: 15033975 
Ppard+|Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppard+
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0001219 thickened epidermis PMID: 11514592 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0004126 thin hypodermis PMID: 15713628 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0001199 thin skin PMID: 15713628 
Ppardtm1Wwah Ppardtm1Wwah/Ppardtm1Wwah
Not Specified
MGI:101884  MP:0000382 underdeveloped hair follicles PMID: 15713628 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Atherosclerosis
Role: 
Comments: 
References:  8,12,20-21
Mutations not determined
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology
Overexpression in C2C12 myoblasts participates in their transdifferentiation into adipocytes
Tissue or cell type:  C2C12 myoblasts
Pathophysiology: 
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Retroviral mediated gene transfer
References:  15
Overexpression of constitutively active PPARβ-VP16 fusion protein in white adipose tissue triggers FA mobilization and oxidation leading to mass reduction
Tissue or cell type:  Adipose tissue
Pathophysiology: 
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Transgenesis
References:  35
Overexpression in skeletal muscle provokes a shift toward more oxidative fibers and general decrease of body fat content
Tissue or cell type:  Skeletal muscle
Pathophysiology: 
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Transgenesis
References:  22
PPAβ heterozygous mice
Tissue or cell type:  Skin
Pathophysiology:  Delayed wound closure
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Targeted disruption of one allele
References:  24-25,34
PPARβ knockout: decreased amount of brown and white adipose tissues
Tissue or cell type: 
Pathophysiology:  Enhanced sensitivity to skin carcinogenesis, exacerbated epithelial proliferation, delayed wound repair, enhanced colon carcinogenesis, LDL hypertriglyceridemia
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Targeted disruption-germline knockout
References:  1-2,13,17,25,28

REFERENCES

1. Akiyama TE, Lambert G, Nicol CJ, Matsusue K, Peters JM, Brewer HB, Gonzalez FJ. (2004) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta regulates very low density lipoprotein production and catabolism in mice on a Western diet. J. Biol. Chem.279 (20): 20874-81. [PMID:15001574]

2. Barak Y, Liao D, He W, Ong ES, Nelson MC, Olefsky JM, Boland R, Evans RM. (2002) Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta on placentation, adiposity, and colorectal cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99 (1): 303-8. [PMID:11756685]

3. Bastie C, Holst D, Gaillard D, Jehl-Pietri C, Grimaldi PA. (1999) Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARdelta promotes induction of PPARgamma and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3C2 fibroblasts. J. Biol. Chem.274 (31): 21920-5. [PMID:10419513]

4. Berger J, Leibowitz MD, Doebber TW, Elbrecht A, Zhang B, Zhou G, Biswas C, Cullinan CA, Hayes NS, Li Y, Tanen M, Ventre J, Wu MS, Berger GD, Mosley R, Marquis R, Santini C, Sahoo SP, Tolman RL, Smith RG, Moller DE. (1999) Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects. J. Biol. Chem.274 (10): 6718-25. [PMID:10037770]

5. Brown PJ, Smith-Oliver TA, Charifson PS, Tomkinson NC, Fivush AM, Sternbach DD, Wade LE, Orband-Miller L, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Kliewer SA, Lehmann JM, Willson TM. (1997) Identification of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands from a biased chemical library. Chem. Biol.4 (12): 909-18. [PMID:9427656]

6. Brown PJ, Stuart LW, Hurley KP, Lewis MC, Winegar DA, Wilson JG, Wilkison WO, Ittoop OR, Willson TM. (2001) Identification of a subtype selective human PPARalpha agonist through parallel-array synthesis. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.11 (9): 1225-7. [PMID:11354382]

7. Caira F, Antonson P, Pelto-Huikko M, Treuter E, Gustafsson JA. (2000) Cloning and characterization of RAP250, a novel nuclear receptor coactivator. J. Biol. Chem.275 (8): 5308-17. [PMID:10681503]

8. Desvergne B, Michalik L, Wahli W. (2004) Be fit or be sick: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are down the road. Mol. Endocrinol.18 (6): 1321-32. [PMID:15087471]

9. Desvergne B, Wahli W. (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr. Rev.20 (5): 649-88. [PMID:10529898]

10. Di-Poï N, Michalik L, Tan NS, Desvergne B, Wahli W. (2003) The anti-apoptotic role of PPARbeta contributes to efficient skin wound healing. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.85 (2-5): 257-65. [PMID:12943711]

11. Di-Poï N, Tan NS, Michalik L, Wahli W, Desvergne B. (2002) Antiapoptotic role of PPARbeta in keratinocytes via transcriptional control of the Akt1 signaling pathway. Mol. Cell10 (4): 721-33. [PMID:12419217]

12. Graham TL, Mookherjee C, Suckling KE, Palmer CN, Patel L. (2005) The PPARdelta agonist GW0742X reduces atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis181 (1): 29-37. [PMID:15939051]

13. Harman FS, Nicol CJ, Marin HE, Ward JM, Gonzalez FJ, Peters JM. (2004) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta attenuates colon carcinogenesis. Nat. Med.10 (5): 481-3. [PMID:15048110]

14. Henke BR. (2004) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma dual agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J. Med. Chem.47 (17): 4118-27. [PMID:15293980]

15. Holst D, Luquet S, Kristiansen K, Grimaldi PA. (2003) Roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors delta and gamma in myoblast transdifferentiation. Exp. Cell Res.288 (1): 168-76. [PMID:12878168]

16. Jackson TA, Richer JK, Bain DL, Takimoto GS, Tung L, Horwitz KB. (1997) The partial agonist activity of antagonist-occupied steroid receptors is controlled by a novel hinge domain-binding coactivator L7/SPA and the corepressors N-CoR or SMRT. Mol. Endocrinol.11 (6): 693-705. [PMID:9171233]

17. Kim DJ, Bility MT, Billin AN, Willson TM, Gonzalez FJ, Peters JM. (2006) PPARbeta/delta selectively induces differentiation and inhibits cell proliferation. Cell Death Differ.13 (1): 53-60. [PMID:16021179]

18. Kliewer SA, Forman BM, Blumberg B, Ong ES, Borgmeyer U, Mangelsdorf DJ, Umesono K, Evans RM. (1994) Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.91 (15): 7355-9. [PMID:8041794]

19. Krogsdam AM, Nielsen CA, Neve S, Holst D, Helledie T, Thomsen B, Bendixen C, Mandrup S, Kristiansen K. (2002) Nuclear receptor corepressor-dependent repression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta-mediated transactivation. Biochem. J.363 (Pt 1): 157-65. [PMID:11903058]

20. Lee CH, Chawla A, Urbiztondo N, Liao D, Boisvert WA, Evans RM, Curtiss LK. (2003) Transcriptional repression of atherogenic inflammation: modulation by PPARdelta. Science302 (5644): 453-7. [PMID:12970571]

21. Li AC, Binder CJ, Gutierrez A, Brown KK, Plotkin CR, Pattison JW, Valledor AF, Davis RA, Willson TM, Witztum JL, Palinski W, Glass CK. (2004) Differential inhibition of macrophage foam-cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice by PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma. J. Clin. Invest.114 (11): 1564-76. [PMID:15578089]

22. Luquet S, Lopez-Soriano J, Holst D, Fredenrich A, Melki J, Rassoulzadegan M, Grimaldi PA. (2003) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta controls muscle development and oxidative capability. FASEB J.17 (15): 2299-301. [PMID:14525942]

23. Mandard S, Zandbergen F, Tan NS, Escher P, Patsouris D, Koenig W, Kleemann R, Bakker A, Veenman F, Wahli W, Müller M, Kersten S. (2004) The direct peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF/PGAR/ANGPTL4) is present in blood plasma as a truncated protein that is increased by fenofibrate treatment. J. Biol. Chem.279 (33): 34411-20. [PMID:15190076]

24. Michalik L, Desvergne B, Basu-Modak S, Tan NS, Wahli W. (2000) Nuclear hormone receptors and mouse skin homeostasis: implication of PPARbeta. Horm. Res.54 (5-6): 263-8. [PMID:11595815]

25. Michalik L, Desvergne B, Tan NS, Basu-Modak S, Escher P, Rieusset J, Peters JM, Kaya G, Gonzalez FJ, Zakany J, Metzger D, Chambon P, Duboule D, Wahli W. (2001) Impaired skin wound healing in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARbeta mutant mice. J. Cell Biol.154 (4): 799-814. [PMID:11514592]

26. Molnár F, Matilainen M, Carlberg C. (2005) Structural determinants of the agonist-independent association of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with coactivators. J. Biol. Chem.280 (28): 26543-56. [PMID:15888456]

27. Oliver WR, Shenk JL, Snaith MR, Russell CS, Plunket KD, Bodkin NL, Lewis MC, Winegar DA, Sznaidman ML, Lambert MH, Xu HE, Sternbach DD, Kliewer SA, Hansen BC, Willson TM. (2001) A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.98 (9): 5306-11. [PMID:11309497]

28. Peters JM, Lee SS, Li W, Ward JM, Gavrilova O, Everett C, Reitman ML, Hudson LD, Gonzalez FJ. (2000) Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol. Cell. Biol.20 (14): 5119-28. [PMID:10866668]

29. Qi C, Zhu Y, Reddy JK. (2000) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, coactivators, and downstream targets. Cell Biochem. Biophys.32 Spring: 187-204. [PMID:11330046]

30. Schmidt A, Endo N, Rutledge SJ, Vogel R, Shinar D, Rodan GA. (1992) Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids. Mol. Endocrinol.6 (10): 1634-41. [PMID:1333051]

31. Shaw N, Elholm M, Noy N. (2003) Retinoic acid is a high affinity selective ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. J. Biol. Chem.278 (43): 41589-92. [PMID:12963727]

32. Shearer BG, Steger DJ, Way JM, Stanley TB, Lobe DC, Grillot DA, Iannone MA, Lazar MA, Willson TM, Billin AN. (2008) Identification and characterization of a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (NR1C2) antagonist. Mol. Endocrinol.22 (2): 523-9. [PMID:17975020]

33. Sznaidman ML, Haffner CD, Maloney PR, Fivush A, Chao E, Goreham D, Sierra ML, LeGrumelec C, Xu HE, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Willson TM, Oliver WR, Sternbach DD. (2003) Novel selective small molecule agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta)--synthesis and biological activity. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.13 (9): 1517-21. [PMID:12699745]

34. Tan NS, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. (2003) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-beta as a target for wound healing drugs: what is possible?. Am J Clin Dermatol4 (8): 523-30. [PMID:12862494]

35. Wang YX, Lee CH, Tiep S, Yu RT, Ham J, Kang H, Evans RM. (2003) Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta activates fat metabolism to prevent obesity. Cell113 (2): 159-70. [PMID:12705865]

36. Willson TM, Brown PJ, Sternbach DD, Henke BR. (2000) The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery. J. Med. Chem.43 (4): 527-50. [PMID:10691680]

37. Xing G, Zhang L, Zhang L, Heynen T, Yoshikawa T, Smith M, Weiss S, Detera-Wadleigh S. (1995) Rat PPAR delta contains a CGG triplet repeat and is prominently expressed in the thalamic nuclei. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.217 (3): 1015-25. [PMID:8554552]

38. Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Brown PJ, Sternbach DD, Lehmann JM, Wisely GB, Willson TM, Kliewer SA, Milburn MV. (1999) Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol. Cell3 (3): 397-403. [PMID:10198642]

39. Yu C, Markan K, Temple KA, Deplewski D, Brady MJ, Cohen RN. (2005) The nuclear receptor corepressors NCoR and SMRT decrease peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity and repress 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. J. Biol. Chem.280 (14): 13600-5. [PMID:15691842]

40. Zamir I, Harding HP, Atkins GB, Hörlein A, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG, Lazar MA. (1996) A nuclear hormone receptor corepressor mediates transcriptional silencing by receptors with distinct repression domains. Mol. Cell. Biol.16 (10): 5458-65. [PMID:8816459]

To cite this database page, please use the following:

1C. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ. Last modified on 13/12/2013. Accessed on 24/07/2014. IUPHAR database (IUPHAR-DB), http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=594.

Contact us | Print | Back to top | Help
Copyright © 2014 IUPHAR