Nomenclature: Cav1.2

Family: Voltage-gated calcium channels

Annotation status:  image of an orange circle Annotated and awaiting review. Please contact us if you can help with reviewing. 

Contents

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM P Loops AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 24 4 2138 12p13.3 CACNA1C calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit
Mouse 24 4 2169 6 F1 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit
Rat 24 4 2170 4q42 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit
Previous and Unofficial Names
α1C
cardiac or smooth muscle L-type Ca2+ channel
cardiac or smooth muscle dihydropyridine receptor
Cav1.2
L-type
α1C
cardiac or smooth muscle L
CCHL1A1
CACNL1A1
CACH2
CACN2
TS
LQT8
RATIVS302
Ca channel voltage-dependent L type alpha 1c subunit
Ca channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1c subunit
L-type calcium channel alpha-1 subunit
RBC
brain class C
calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 1, cardiac muscle
calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 1C subunit
voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C
voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav1.2
L-type Cav1.2
class C L-type
Cav1.2α1
C-LTCC
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet Gene
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
Protein Ontology (PRO)
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniGene Hs.
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Associated Proteins
Heteromeric Pore-forming Subunits
Name References
Not determined
Auxiliary Subunits
Name References
β1-4 19
α (isoforms 1-4) 37,63
Other Associated Proteins
Name References
Actinin-2
A-kinase anchoring proteins 17
BIN-1 34
PP2A/PP2B/Calcineurin 29,52,86
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II 40,61
Caveolin 3 5
KCHIP-2 75
Phospholemman/FXYD1 78
RGK-GTPases 53,88
Sorcin 20
Calcium binding proteins (Caldendrin, CaBP1) 76
NIL-16 82
STIM-1 55,79
Phosphodiesterase 4B 41
Calmodulin 59,61,89,92
Calfacilitin 54
Functional Characteristics
High voltage-activated, slow inactivation (Ca2+ dependent)
Ion Selectivity and Conductance
Species:  Guinea pig
Rank order:  Na+ [85.0 pS] > Li+ [45.0 pS] > Ba2+ [25.0 pS] > Ca2+ [8.0 pS] = Sr2+ [8.0 pS]
References:  31
Voltage Dependence
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -17.6 0.5 – 1.5 30 HEK-293, tsA-201 Mouse
Inactivation  - -
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  -6.02 – -0.14 (median: -4.8) 5.2 – 7.1 12,42,46,48,57 Ventricular myocytes. Human
Inactivation  -28.5 – -18.4 (median: -20.4) 9.11 – 21.1 8,12,42,46,48,57
Comments  Data are given for physiological Ca2+ concentrations. Inactivation time constants are given for depolarising pulses close to Vmax. In addition to τf displayed above τs is 60.9-133ms. The activation time data is measured time to peak during pulses close to Vmax.
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  0.9 - 77 Xenopus laevis oocyte Human
Inactivation  -14.9 - 77
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  4.5 - 14 Xenopus laevis oocyte Rat
Inactivation  1.7 30.0 14
Comments  Data are for 10mM extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Inactivation time constant ii estimated given for depolarising pulses close to Vmax. In addition to τf displayed above τs is 175ms.
Voltage Dependence Comments
V0.5 for inactivation varies depending on prepulse duration (more negative after long prepulses); inactivation time course strongly depends on associated β subunit (slower inactivation with β2a) and on charge carrier (calcium-induced inactivation with Ca2+ as charge carrier). Activation and inactivation voltage are affected by alternative splicing. Splice variants preferentially expressed in vascular smooth muscle activate/inactivate at more hyperpolarized voltages. They underlie hyperpolarized window currents in smooth muscle and enhanced state-dependent inhibition by dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers [43].
Activators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
BAYK 8644 Rn - - - 5x10-6 - 14
Conc range: 5x10-6 M [14]
FPL64176 Rn - - - 1x10-6 - 5x10-6 - 44
Conc range: 1x10-6 - 5x10-6 M [44]
SZ(+)-(S)-202-791 Hs - - - - -
(-)-(S)-BayK8644 Hs - - - - -
View species-specific activator tables
Gating inhibitors
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
[3H](+)-isradipine Hs - 10.1 – 11.0 pKd - - 67
pKd 10.1 – 11.0 [67]
[3H](+)-isradipine Mm - 10.1 pKd - - 69
pKd 10.1 [69]
[3H](-)devapamil Rn Antagonist 8.21 – 8.36 pKd - - 51,91
pKd 8.21 – 8.36 [51,91]
[3H](+)-cis-diltiazem Rn Antagonist 7.15 pKd - - 51
pKd 7.15 [51]
nitrendipine Clf - 9.4 pIC50 - -80.0 – 30.0 7
pIC50 9.4 [7]
Holding voltage: -80.0 – 30.0 mV
nifedipine Rn Antagonist 7.66 pIC50 - -80.0 60
pIC50 7.66 [60]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
nifedipine Hs Antagonist 7.0 – 8.0 pIC50 - -90.0 43
pIC50 7.0 – 8.0 [43]
Holding voltage: -90.0 mV
isradipine Mm - 7.5 pIC50 - -80.0 69
pIC50 7.5 [69]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
nisoldipine Mm - 7.0 – 8.0 pIC50 - -80.0 68
pIC50 7.0 – 8.0 [68]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
(-)-devapamil Rn Antagonist 7.3 pIC50 - 10.0 33,36
pIC50 7.3 [33,36]
Holding voltage: 10.0 mV
nisoldipine Hs - 7.1 pIC50 - -80.0 72
pIC50 7.1 [72]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
nimodipine Rn - 6.8 pIC50 - -80.0 87
pIC50 6.8 [87]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
nitrendipine Rn - 6.0 pIC50 - -80.0 87
pIC50 6.0 [87]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
verapamil Rn - 5.3 – 6.5 pIC50 - -60.0 – 10.0 36
pIC50 5.3 – 6.5 [36]
Holding voltage: -60.0 – 10.0 mV
View species-specific gating inhibitor tables
Gating Inhibitor Comments
Inhibition by dihydropyridines (e.g. nifedipine; [43,60]) is voltage-dependent with a higher apparent affinity at more depolarised potentials; phenylalkylamines (like devapamil; [36]) exhibit strong use-dependence with a higher apparent affinity at higher stimalation frequencies.
Channel Blockers
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
Pb2+ Hs Antagonist 6.4 pIC50 - -70.0 58
pIC50 6.4 [58]
Holding voltage: -70.0 mV
Cd2+ Oc - 5.7 – 6.0 pIC50 - -80.0 32
pIC50 5.7 – 6.0 [32]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
mibefradil Hs Antagonist 4.9 pIC50 - -110.0 47
pIC50 4.9 [47]
Holding voltage: -110.0 mV
(-)-(R)-efonidipine Rn Antagonist 2.0 – 3.5 pIC50 - -100.0 – -60.0 24
pIC50 2.0 – 3.5 [24]
Holding voltage: -100.0 – -60.0 mV
calciseptine Hs Antagonist - - - -
nifedipine Hs Antagonist - - - -
diltiazem Hs Antagonist - - - -
verapamil Hs Antagonist - - - -
View species-specific channel blocker tables
Channel Blocker Comments
Nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil and calciseptine are examples of dihydropyridine antagonists.
Tissue Distribution
Brain (cortex, pallidum, putamen, hippocampus, caudate nucleas, substantia nigra, cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  74
Heart, brain, prostate, bladder,uterus ,stomach, colon, small intestive, placenta, adrenal gland, spinal cord.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern Blot
References:  28,66,72
Lymphocytes
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR, Western blotting.
References:  73
Lymphocytes
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  4
Expressed in the first and second pharyngeal arches within the subset of cells that give rise to jaw primordia.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  β-galactosidase expression in transgenic mice
References:  64
Brain (adult; hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, caudate putamen, cortex), heart. Teeth (P0), eye (E16.5, retina and sclera), digits (E12.5).
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  In situ hybridisation
References:  72
Brain (cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus (dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn) > amygdala, thalamus).
Species:  Rat
Technique:  In situ hybridisation
References:  45
Tissue Distribution Comments
The physiological role of individual L-type channel isoforms for lymphocyte function not established. Additionally, truncated Cav1.2 protein has been detected in lymphocytes on protein level, however its function remains unknown [73].
Functional Assays
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes.
Response measured:  L-type currents
References:  8,12,28,42,46,48,57,69
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  HEK-293 cells expressing Cav1.2, cardiac myocytes
Response measured:  L-type currents.
References:  30,68
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, PC12 cells expressing Cav1.2.
Response measured:  L-type currents.
References:  14,33,36,44
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Xenopus oocytes, CHO cells expressing Cav1.2
Response measured:  L-type current
References:  66,70,72,77
Patch-clamp (whole cell currents and single channel recordings), two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Sympathetic neurons.
Response measured:  L-type current
References:  44
Calcium imaging.
Species:  Rat
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes.
Response measured:  Intracellular calcium transients, calcium release.
References:  13,27
Physiological Functions
Excitation contraction coupling and muscle contraction in heart and vascular smooth muscle.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Heart and vascular smooth muscle.
References:  50,69,90
Insulin secretion, β-cell L-type calcium currents.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Pancreatic β-cells.
References:  6,65,69
Early cardiac development.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Embryonal heart.
References:  68
Urinary bladder function.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Urinary bladder.
References:  81
Mandibular development (evidence in humans and mice)
Species:  Human
Tissue:  First and second pharyngeal arches (jaw primordia)
References:  64
Control of emotional behaviours
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  3,39
Acquisition of conditioned fear, fear learning
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain
References:  35,38
Hippocampal long-term potentiation and spatial memory.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Brain.
References:  49,84
Intestinal smooth muscle contraction, intestinal mobility
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Intestinal smooth muscle
References:  80
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Cardiac hypertrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes
Technique:  Homologous recombination: reduced expression of Cav1.2 in mouse hearts in various mouse models
References:  9,18,22,26
Disruption of protein kinase A phosphorylation leads to reduced channel activation by isoproterenol and to impaired cardiac function in vivo (reduced exercise capacity, cardiac hypertrophy)
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Cardiac myocytes
Technique:  Homologous recombination; mutant mice with impaired protein kinase A phosphorylation (S1700A/T1704A)
References:  21
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002206 abnormal CNS synaptic transmission PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Hfm Cacna1ctm1Hfm/Cacna1ctm1Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm2Hfm Cacna1ctm2Hfm/Cacna1ctm2Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002085 abnormal embryonic tissue morphology PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm1.1Knt Cacna1ctm1.1Knt/Cacna1ctm1.1Knt
involves: 129 * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0001449 abnormal learning/ memory PMID: 20190743 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002066 abnormal motor capabilities/coordination/movement PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0004215 abnormal myocardial fiber physiology PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0003633 abnormal nervous system physiology PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0003562 abnormal pancreatic beta cell physiology PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm1Jst Cacna1ctm1Jst/Cacna1ctm1Jst
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0002573 behavioral despair PMID: 15146240 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0002727 decreased circulating insulin level PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0003059 decreased insulin secretion PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0001402 hypoactivity
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0001405 impaired coordination
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0005293 impaired glucose tolerance PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1ctm1.1Knt Cacna1ctm1.1Knt/Cacna1ctm1.1Knt
involves: 129 * C57BL/6J
MGI:103013  MP:0008531 increased chemical nociceptive threshold PMID: 20190743 
Cacna1ctm3Hfm|Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn Cacna1ctm3Hfm/Cacna1ctm3Hfm,Tg(Ins2-cre)25Mgn/0
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA
MGI:103013  MGI:2176225  MP:0005559 increased circulating glucose level PMID: 12881419 
Cacna1c+|Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1c+
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002797 increased thigmotaxis
Cacna1ctm1Hfm Cacna1ctm1Hfm/Cacna1ctm1Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0006208 lethality throughout fetal growth and development PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm2Hfm Cacna1ctm2Hfm/Cacna1ctm2Hfm
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0006208 lethality throughout fetal growth and development PMID: 10973973 
Cacna1ctm1Dgen Cacna1ctm1Dgen/Cacna1ctm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
MGI:103013  MP:0002082 postnatal lethality
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Timothy syndrome
OMIM:  601005
Orphanet:  65283
References: 
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human G406R 72
Missense Human G402S 71
Missense Human p.A1473G 25
Disease:  Arterial hypertension
Drugs: 
Side effects:  Hypotension, edema, constipation, bradycardia, AV-block.
Therapeutic use:  Treatment of hypertension (first-line option).
References:  1,15
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Cardiac arrhythmias
Drugs: 
References:  56,62
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Angina pectoris
Drugs: 
Side effects:  Hypotension, edema, constipation, bradycardia, AV-block.
Therapeutic use:  Prophylaxis and treatment.
References:  62
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Brugada Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome + short QT
OMIM:  611875
Orphanet:  130
Role: 
References: 
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human p.G490R see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.A39V see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.N547S see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.R858H see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.E1115K see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.C1837Y see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.E1829_Q1833dup see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.R1880Q see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.R1970Q see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.V2014I see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.D2130N see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human c.1896G>A (splice error) see NM_000719 2,11,23
Missense Human p.C1855Y see NM_001167625 2,11,23
Disease:  Early repolarisation syndrome
Role: 
References:  11
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human p.E850del see NM_000719 11
Disease:  Non syndromic autosomal dominant long QT-syndrome
Role: 
References:  10
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human p.P857R see NM_001167625 10
Disease:  Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation
References:  23
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human p.R858H see NM_000719 23
Gene Expression and Pathophysiology
Downregulation in animal models of inflamatory bowel disease.
Tissue or cell type:  Intestinal smooth muscle.
Pathophysiology:  Inflammatory bowel disease.
Species:  Dog
Technique:  Immunoblots and patch clamp electrophysiology.
References: 
SNPs in human CACNA1C gene
Tissue or cell type:  Neurons
Pathophysiology:  Risk for psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders
Species:  Human
Technique: 
References:  16
Gain of Cav1.2 function mutations in mice
Tissue or cell type:  Neurons
Pathophysiology:  Autistic phenotype
Species:  Mouse
Technique: 
References:  3
Upregulation in reactive astrocytes following brain injury.
Tissue or cell type:  Brain.
Pathophysiology:  Brain injury.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry in the shiverer mouse or kainate-lesioned rat
References:  83
Upregulation in reactive astrocytes around amyloid plaques in mouse Alzheimer models
Tissue or cell type:  Reactive astrocytes
Pathophysiology:  Alzheimer's disease
Species:  Mouse
Technique: 
References:  85
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  Predominant smooth muscle splice variant. The RNA sequence is Z34815 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The protein sequence is CAA84346.1 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The physiological effect is control of vascular tone (window calcium inward current); pharmacological effect is higher sensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers than cardiac splice variants; explains pronounced blood pressure lowering effect of these drugs with only minor cardiodepressant action.
References:  43
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Human
Description:  Predominant heart muscle splice variant. The RNA sequence is Z34815 - modified, containing exon combination 1a/8a/delta9*/32/33. The protein sequence is CAA84346.1 - modified, containing exon combination 1/8/9*/32/delta33. The physiological effect is a major Cav1.2 isoform involved in cardiac contraction while the pharmacological effect is lower sensitivity to dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers than cardiac splice variants
References:  43
Biologically Significant Variant Comments
Smooth muscle and cardiac splice variants exist which differ in their voltage-dependant inactivation properties [43]. Alterations in the splicing pattern was observed in human smooth muscle within atherosclerotic regions [77].

REFERENCES

1. ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. (2002) Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA.288: 2981-97. [PMID:12479763]

2. Antzelevitch C, Pollevick GD, Cordeiro JM, Casis O, Sanguinetti MC, Aizawa Y, Guerchicoff A, Pfeiffer R, Oliva A, Wollnik B et al.. (2007) Loss-of-function mutations in the cardiac calcium channel underlie a new clinical entity characterized by ST-segment elevation, short QT intervals, and sudden cardiac death. Circulation115 (4): 442-9. [PMID:17224476]

3. Bader PL, Faizi M, Kim LH, Owen SF, Tadross MR, Alfa RW, Bett GC, Tsien RW, Rasmusson RL, Shamloo M. (2011) Mouse model of Timothy syndrome recapitulates triad of autistic traits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108 (37): 15432-7. [PMID:21878566]

4. Badou A, Jha MK, Matza D, Mehal WZ, Freichel M, Flockerzi V, Flavell RA. (2006) Critical role for the beta regulatory subunits of Cav channels in T lymphocyte function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103 (42): 15529-34. [PMID:17028169]

5. Balijepalli RC, Foell JD, Hall DD, Hell JW, Kamp TJ. (2006) Localization of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels to a caveolar macromolecular signaling complex is required for beta(2)-adrenergic regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103 (19): 7500-5. [PMID:16648270]

6. Barg S, Ma X, Eliasson L, Galvanovskis J, Göpel SO, Obermüller S, Platzer J, Renström E, Trus M, Atlas D, Striessnig J, Rorsman P. (2001) Fast exocytosis with few Ca(2+) channels in insulin-secreting mouse pancreatic B cells. Biophys. J.81 (6): 3308-23. [PMID:11720994]

7. Bean BP. (1984) Nitrendipine block of cardiac calcium channels: high-affinity binding to the inactivated state. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.81 (20): 6388-92. [PMID:6093100]

8. Beuckelmann DJ, Näbauer M, Erdmann E. (1991) Characteristics of calcium-current in isolated human ventricular myocytes from patients with terminal heart failure. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.23 (8): 929-37. [PMID:1658345]

9. Blaich A, Pahlavan S, Tian Q, Oberhofer M, Poomvanicha M, Lenhardt P, Domes K, Wegener JW, Moosmang S, Ruppenthal S et al.. (2012) Mutation of the calmodulin binding motif IQ of the L-type Ca(v)1.2 Ca2+ channel to EQ induces dilated cardiomyopathy and death. J. Biol. Chem.287 (27): 22616-25. [PMID:22589547]

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