Nomenclature: Cav1.1

Family: Voltage-gated calcium channels

Annotation status:  image of an orange circle Annotated and awaiting review. Please contact us if you can help with reviewing. 

Contents

Gene and Protein Information
Species TM P Loops AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 24 4 1873 1q32 CACNA1S calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit 15
Mouse 24 4 1852 1 F Cacna1s calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit 9
Rat 24 4 1850 13 Cacna1s calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit 11
Previous and Unofficial Names
α1s
skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel
skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor
Cav1.1
L-type
α1s
HOKPP
MHS5
CACNL1A3
hypoPP
Cchl1a3
LOC682930
ROB1
calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 3, skeletal muscle
calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit
similar to Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel alpha-1S subunit (Voltage-gated calcium channel alpha subunit Cav1.1) (Calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 3, skeletal muscle)
voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S
voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav1.1
mdg
fmd
sj
muscle dysgenesis
DHPR alpha1s
AW493108
skeletal muscle L channel
alpha-1 polypeptide, isoform 3, skeletal muscle
DHPR
CCHL1A3
HOKPP1
TTPP1
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet Gene
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
Protein Ontology (PRO)
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniGene Hs.
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Associated Proteins
Heteromeric Pore-forming Subunits
Name References
Not determined
Auxiliary Subunits
Name References
γ1 27
β1a 43
α 16,37
Other Associated Proteins
Name References
A kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP15) 26
Functional Characteristics
High voltage-activated, slow inactivation
Ion Selectivity and Conductance
Species:  None
Rank order:  Ca2+ > Sr2+ > Mg2+ > Ba2+ [13.0 - 17.0 pS]
References:  13-14,21,40
Voltage Dependence
  V0.5 (mV)  τ (msec)  Reference  Cell type  Species 
Activation  8.0 – 14.0 60.0 – 67.0 13,21 Skeletal muscle myotubes. Mouse
Inactivation  -8.0 - 21
Comments  Data are for Ca2+ currents; inactivation during depolarisation pulses is slow (about 40% inactivation after 5 s).
Activators
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
BAYK 8644 Mm - - - 5x10-7 - 1x10-5 -20.0 – -10.0 22,32
Conc range: 5x10-7 - 1x10-5 M [22,32]
Holding voltage: -20.0 – -10.0 mV
FPL64176 Hs - - - - -
SZ(+)-(S)-202-791 Hs - - - - -
(-)-(S)-BayK8644 Hs - - - - -
View species-specific activator tables
Activator Comments
BAYK 8644 stimulates currents at μM concentrations but, unlike inhibitory dihydropyridines, does not block charge movement [22,32,40].
Gating inhibitors
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
[3H](+)-isradipine Hs Antagonist 9.7 pKd - - 12
pKd 9.7 [12]
[3H](+)-isradipine Rn Antagonist 9.18 pKd - - 38
pKd 9.18 [38]
[3H](-)devapamil Oc Antagonist 8.23 – 8.66 pKd - - 23-24
pKd 8.23 – 8.66 [23-24]
[3H](+)-cis-diltiazem Oc - 6.5 – 7.37 pKd - - 24,41
pKd 6.5 – 7.37 [24,41]
(+)-isradipine Rn Antagonist 6.7 – 8.2 pIC50 - -50.0 – -80.0 3
pIC50 6.7 – 8.2 [3]
Holding voltage: -50.0 – -80.0 mV
nifedipine Rn Antagonist 6.3 pIC50 1x10-7 - 1x10-4 -90.0 32
pIC50 6.3 Conc range: 1x10-7 - 1x10-4 M [32]
Holding voltage: -90.0 mV
nitrendipine Rn Antagonist 6.0 pIC50 - -80.0 3
pIC50 6.0 [3]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
View species-specific gating inhibitor tables
Channel Blockers
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Concentration range (M) Holding voltage (mV) Reference
Cd2+ Rn Antagonist 4.3 pIC50 - -80.0 3
pIC50 4.3 [3]
Holding voltage: -80.0 mV
calciseptine Hs Antagonist - - - -
nifedipine Hs Antagonist - - - -
verapamil Hs Antagonist - - - -
diltiazem Hs Antagonist - - - -
View species-specific channel blocker tables
Channel Blocker Comments
Nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil and calciseptine are examples of dihydropyridine antagonists.
Tissue Distribution
Basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, pallidum > putamen), cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra, spinal cord.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  48
Skeletal muscle (predominantly transverse tubules) > bone marrow
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern Blot
References:  48
Lymphocytes.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry
References:  1,35
Embryonic muscle, myotubes.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  52
Cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, lung, small intestine, testis.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  48
Skeletal muscle > cerebrum, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, spleen, small intestine, lung.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  Northern Blot
References:  48
Tissue Distribution Comments
On the protein level Cav1.1 channel expression was demonstrated only in skeletal muscle and mRNA expression has been described by one research group in rat and human brain [48], but these findings have not been reproduced by other groups so far [45].
Functional Assays
Patch-clamp, two-electrode voltage-clamp.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle fibres.
Response measured:  Whole cell current, charge movement.
References:  4,13-14,21,32
Measurement of intracellular calcium transients.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle.
Response measured:  Fluorescence of calcium-sensitive indicators.
References:  18
Patch-clamp measurement of currents in normal and γ1-deficient channels.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle myotubes.
Response measured:  Single channel and whole cell currents.
References:  14,21
Physiological Functions
Excitation contraction coupling (ECC)
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle.
References:  44,49
Neuromuscular synaptic patterning
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle
References:  10,19
Physiological Functions Comments
ECC is absent from dysgenic skeletal muscle cells lacking dihydropyridine receptors and is restored by transfection of these cells with Cav1.1 α1 subunits [44,49]; fast voltage sensor movement of channel triggers opening of ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release; channel pore opens only slowly and role of calcium entry for physiological function is not clear.
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
Muscular dysgenesis
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle
Technique:  Spontaneous mutation (frameshift F1317L onward)
References:  40
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis phenotype
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Skeletal muscle
Technique:  Homologous recombination; mutant mouse model of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (R528H)
References:  53
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002114 abnormal axial skeleton morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000163 abnormal cartilage morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0003048 abnormal cervical vertebrae morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002279 abnormal diaphragm morphology PMID: 6692971  6692972 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129P1/ReJ * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002279 abnormal diaphragm morphology PMID: 7286424 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000961 abnormal dorsal root ganglion morphology PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129P1/ReJ * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0005584 abnormal enzyme/coenzyme activity PMID: 7286424  8666981 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004198 abnormal fetal size PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002932 abnormal joint morphology PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000458 abnormal mandible morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004595 abnormal mandibular condyloid process morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004594 abnormal mandibular coronoid process morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000733 abnormal muscle development PMID: 1237429  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129 * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000733 abnormal muscle development PMID: 6708965 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004087 abnormal muscle fiber morphology PMID: 6692971  6692972 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001052 abnormal muscle innervation PMID: 6692971 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129P1/ReJ * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001052 abnormal muscle innervation PMID: 7286424 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129P1/ReJ * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002108 abnormal muscle morphology PMID: 7286424 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002106 abnormal muscle physiology PMID: 1663002 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0005269 abnormal occipital bone morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001078 abnormal phrenic nerve morphology PMID: 6692972 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000150 abnormal rib morphology PMID: 14300095  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004090 abnormal sarcomere morphology PMID: 8143864 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0003084 abnormal skeletal muscle fiber morphology PMID: 5041196  8143864  8462749 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0005112 abnormal spinal cord ventral horn morphology PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004174 abnormal spine curvature PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004322 abnormal sternebra morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000157 abnormal sternum morphology PMID: 14300095  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004733 abnormal thoracic cavity PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000762 abnormal tongue morphology PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004136 abnormal tongue muscle morphology PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004703 abnormal vertebral column PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004091 abnormal Z lines PMID: 5041196  8143864 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004354 absent deltoid tuberosity PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004846 absent skeletal muscle PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004620 cervical vertebral fusion PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0009890 cleft secondary palate PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0008150 decreased diameter of long bones PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004819 decreased skeletal muscle mass PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0009907 decreased tongue size PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004089 dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum PMID: 5041196 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001785 edema PMID: 14300095  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004386 enlarged interparietal bone PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0003201 extremity edema PMID: 14300095  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129 * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000738 impaired muscle contractility PMID: 6708965  6708966 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002841 impaired skeletal muscle contractility PMID: 8143864  8462749 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: 129P1/ReJ * STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002841 impaired skeletal muscle contractility PMID: 4738109 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000005 increased brown adipose tissue amount PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000160 kyphosis PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001513 limb grasping PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004671 long ribs PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0005421 loose skin PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002639 micrognathia PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000749 muscle degeneration PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0001404 no spontaneous movement PMID: 14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0002081 perinatal lethality PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000435 shortened head PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000088 short mandible PMID: 14300095  14300096 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004321 short sternum PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004338 small clavicle PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004343 small scapula PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0000761 thin diaphragm muscle PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004674 thin ribs PMID: 14300095 
Cacna1smdg Cacna1smdg/Cacna1smdg
involves: STOCK T/t<4>
MGI:88294  MP:0004623 thoracic vertebral fusion PMID: 14300095 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis, type 1; HOKPP1
OMIM:  170400
Orphanet:  681
Role: 
References:  5,20,28-29,42,47
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human R1239H 20,42
Missense Human R1239G 42
Missense Human R528H 5,20,28
Missense Human R528G 25,46
Missense Human R900S 25
Missense Human R900G 34
Missense Human R897S 8,46
Missense Human V876E 31
Missense Human H916Q 33
Disease:  Malignant hyperthermia sensitivity
OMIM:  601887
Orphanet:  423
Role: 
References:  29,36,47
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human R1086H 36
Missense Human R1086C 2,46
Missense Human R1096S 51
Missense Human T1354S 39
Missense Human R174W 6
Disease:  Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, susceptibility to, 1; TTPP1
OMIM:  188580
Orphanet:  79102
References: 
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Normokalemic periodic paralysis
OMIM:  170600
Orphanet:  680
Comments: 
References: 
Click column headers to sort
Type Species Molecular location Description Reference
Missense Human R1242G 17
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology Comments
For details of the mechanism of action of CACNA1S mutations see references [7,30,46].
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Frameshift mutation
Species:  Mouse
Description:  A frameshift mutation in mice results in muscular dysgenesis
Change:  F1317L onward
References:  9
Type:  Splice variant
Species:  Mouse
Description:  Cav1.1 α1s lacking exon 29.

Physiological effect: 30 mV more negative activation voltage-dependence, increased open probability, robust calcium influx, accelerated current kinetics; main splice variant expressed during muscle development; exon skipping correlates with muscle weakness in myotonic dystrophy type 1
Nucleotide accession: 
Protein accession: 
References:  50,52

REFERENCES

1. Badou A, Basavappa S, Desai R, Peng YQ, Matza D, Mehal WZ, Kaczmarek LK, Boulpaep EL, Flavell RA. (2005) Requirement of voltage-gated calcium channel beta4 subunit for T lymphocyte functions. Science307 (5706): 117-21. [PMID:15637280]

2. Baur CP, Klingler W, Jurkat-Rott K, Froeba G, Schoch E, Marx T, Georgieff M, Lehmann-Horn F. (2000) Xenon does not induce contracture in human malignant hyperthermia muscle. Br J Anaesth85 (5): 712-6. [PMID:11094586]

3. Beam KG, Knudson CM. (1988) Calcium currents in embryonic and neonatal mammalian skeletal muscle. J. Gen. Physiol.91 (6): 781-98. [PMID:2458429]

4. Beam KG, Knudson CM. (1988) Effect of postnatal development on calcium currents and slow charge movement in mammalian skeletal muscle. J. Gen. Physiol.91 (6): 799-815. [PMID:2458430]

5. Caciotti A, Morrone A, Domenici R, Donati MA, Zammarchi E. (2003) Severe prognosis in a large family with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Muscle Nerve27 (2): 165-9. [PMID:12548523]

6. Carpenter D, Ringrose C, Leo V, Morris A, Robinson RL, Halsall PJ, Hopkins PM, Shaw MA. (2009) The role of CACNA1S in predisposition to malignant hyperthermia. BMC Med. Genet.10: 104. [PMID:19825159]

7. Catterall WA. (2010) Ion channel voltage sensors: structure, function, and pathophysiology. Neuron67 (6): 915-28. [PMID:20869590]

8. Chabrier S, Monnier N, Lunardi J. (2008) Early onset of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis caused by a novel mutation of the CACNA1S gene. J. Med. Genet.45 (10): 686-8. [PMID:18835861]

9. Chaudhari N. (1992) A single nucleotide deletion in the skeletal muscle-specific calcium channel transcript of muscular dysgenesis (mdg) mice. J. Biol. Chem.267 (36): 25636-9. [PMID:1281468]

10. Chen F, Liu Y, Sugiura Y, Allen PD, Gregg RG, Lin W. (2011) Neuromuscular synaptic patterning requires the function of skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptors. Nat. Neurosci.14 (5): 570-7. [PMID:21441923]

11. Chin H, Krall M, Kim HL, Kozak CA, Mock B. (1992) The gene for the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel (Cchl1a3) maps to mouse chromosome 1. Genomics14 (4): 1089-91. [PMID:1335956]

12. Desnuelle C, Liot D, Serratrice G, Lombet A. (1985) Biochemical characterization of plasma membrane isolated from human skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett.188 (2): 222-6. [PMID:2411596]

13. Dirksen RT, Beam KG. (1995) Single calcium channel behavior in native skeletal muscle. J. Gen. Physiol.105 (2): 227-47. [PMID:7539048]

14. Dirksen RT, Nakai J, Gonzalez A, Imoto K, Beam KG. (1997) The S5-S6 linker of repeat I is a critical determinant of L-type Ca2+ channel conductance. Biophys. J.73 (3): 1402-9. [PMID:9284307]

15. Drouet B, Garcia L, Simon-Chazottes D, Mattei MG, Guénet JL, Schwartz A, Varadi G, Pinçon-Raymond M. (1993) The gene coding for the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor (Cchl1a3 = mdg) maps to mouse chromosome 1 and human 1q32. Mamm. Genome4 (9): 499-503. [PMID:8118099]

16. Ellis SB, Williams ME, Ways NR, Brenner R, Sharp AH, Leung AT, Campbell KP, McKenna E, Koch WJ, Hui A. (1988) Sequence and expression of mRNAs encoding the alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits of a DHP-sensitive calcium channel. Science241 (4873): 1661-4. [PMID:2458626]

17. Fan C, Lehmann-Horn F, Weber MA, Bednarz M, Groome JR, Jonsson MK, Jurkat-Rott K. (2013) Transient compartment-like syndrome and normokalaemic periodic paralysis due to a Cav1.1 mutation. Brain136 (Pt 12): 3775-86. [PMID:24240197]

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To cite this database page, please use the following:

William A. Catterall, Edward Perez-Reyes, Terrance P. Snutch, Joerg Striessnig.
Voltage-gated calcium channels: Cav1.1. Last modified on 11/02/2014. Accessed on 30/08/2014. IUPHAR database (IUPHAR-DB), http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=528.

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