Nomenclature: C3a receptor

Family: Complement peptide receptors

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates. 

Contents

Gene and Protein Information
class A G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 482 12p13.32-12p13.3 C3AR1 complement component 3a receptor 1 18
Mouse 7 477 6 F1 C3ar1 complement component 3a receptor 1 18
Rat 7 473 4q42 C3ar1 complement component 3a receptor 1
Previous and Unofficial Names
AZ3B
HNFAG09
C3AR
C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor
C3a-R
complement component 3a receptor 1
anaphylatoxin C3a receptor
Database Links
ChEMBL Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GPCRDB
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
OMIM
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
Protein Ontology (PRO)
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniGene Hs.
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
C3a {Sp: Human} , C3a {Sp: Mouse} , C3a {Sp: Rat}
C5a {Sp: Human} , C5a {Sp: Mouse} , C5a {Sp: Rat}
Comments: C3a anaphylatoxin has a higher potency than C5a anaphylatoxin
Rank order of potency (Human)
C3a (C3, P01024) > C5a (C5, P01031)  [3]
Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
[125I]C3a (human) Hs Full agonist 8.4 pKd 11
pKd 8.4 (Kd 3.85x10-9 M) [11]
E7 Hs Full agonist 8.7 pEC50 4
pEC50 8.7 (EC50 2x10-9 M) [4]
C3a {Sp: Human} Hs Full agonist 7.3 pEC50 31
pEC50 7.3 (EC50 5.3x10-8 M) [31]
YSFKPMPLaR Hs Full agonist 6.7 pEC50 31
pEC50 6.7 (EC50 2.2x10-7 M) [31]
FLPLAR Hs Full agonist 6.4 pEC50 31
pEC50 6.4 (EC50 4.2x10-7 M) [31]
WWGKKYRASKLGLAR Hs Full agonist 5.9 pEC50 31
pEC50 5.9 (EC50 1.3x10-6 M) [31]
WWGKKYRASKLGLAR Hs Full agonist 8.7 pIC50 31
pIC50 8.7 (IC50 2x10-9 M) [31]
Agonist Comments
The receptor affinity of pEC50 5.9 for WWGKKYRASKLGLAR was detected by a binding assay. C3a receptor has no detectable affinity for the metabolite C3a des Arg. The rodent receptor was recently suggested to interact with vgf gene product TLQP-21, however the binding affinity was found to be relatively low [15].
Antagonists
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
SB290157 Hs Antagonist 7.6 pIC50 2
pIC50 7.6 (IC50 2.8x10-8 M) [2]
FLTChaAR Hs Antagonist 6.6 pIC50 31
pIC50 6.6 (IC50 2.38x10-7 M) [31]
Antagonist Comments
The pIC50 value for FLTChaAR affinity value was obtained from a binding assay.
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Transducer Effector/Response
G protein (identity unknown) Other - See Comments
Comments:  β-arrestin is required for mast cell degranulation in response to C3a
References:  14,37
Secondary Transduction Mechanisms
Comments:  C3aR exhibits a cell-type specific use of secondary signalling cascades. For example, in astrocytes, C3aR causes a transient increase in intracellular calcium mediated by PKC activity, a decrease in cAMP concentrations and an increase in MAPK pathway constituent phosphorylation [29]. In mast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, C3aR activation has also been shown to cause sustained MAPK phosphorylation, leading to the production of cytokines, however in neural precursors C3aR is an inhibitor of this pathway [24,32,36].
References: 
Tissue Distribution
Fibroblasts: tenocytes and myofibroblasts
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  9,17
Dendritic Cells and lymphocytes
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  12,21,26,33
Keratinocytes
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  27
Monocytes, neutrophils, astrocytes
Species:  Human
Technique:  FACS
References:  13
Mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  19,30
Placenta (Hofbauer cells)
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  23
Neural stem cells, immature neurons, oligodendrocytes, microglia
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  13,28
Kidney
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  6,35
Retina
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  39
Brain vascular endothelial cells
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  Immunohistochemistry
References:  13
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Enzyme Release/Degranulation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  RBL-2H3 C3aR transfected cells
Response measured:  Increased β-hexosaminidase release
References:  7
Calcium Mobilisation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Macrophage cells
Response measured:  Mobilisation of intracellular calcium stores
References:  7
ERK1/2 Phosphorylation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Monocytes, HEK293 C3aR transfected cells
Response measured:  Increase in phosphorylated-ERK1/2 as detected by Western blot
References:  30
Chemotaxis
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Mast Cells
Response measured:  Chemotaxis
References:  16
Physiological Functions
Chemotaxis
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Mesenchymal stem cells, rat cerebellar granule cells
References:  10,30
Degranulation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Basophils, eosinophils, mast Cells
References:  1,34,37
Proliferation
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Neural stem cells and immature neurons
References:  28
Cytokine production
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Dendritic Cells, T-Cells
References:  26,33
Osteoclast formation
Species:  Human
Tissue:  Osteoclasts
References:  19
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
In a mouse model of collagen antibody-induced rheumatoid arthritis, C3aR knockout mice showed a 52% decrease in a clinical disease activity score. Decreases in synovial macrophages and neutrophils were also observed in the C3aR knockout mice compared to wildtype.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  5
C3aR knockout mice showed an increase in cytokine response during the sensitisation phase of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). No difference was observed in contact sensitivity or cytokine levels during the elicitation phase of ACD.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  25
C3aR knockout mice demonstrated an accelerated onset of renal injury in a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). C3aR knockout mice showed an increase in chemokine and cytokine levels in the kidney associated with a more rapid rise in serum creatinine and accelerated renal fibrosis. Although disease onset was accelerated, no long term impact of C3aR knockout was seen, with no change in long-term injury or survival of C3aR knockout mice in comparison to wildtype.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  38
C3aR knockout mice show enchanced lethality to LPS induced endotoxic shock. Elevations in plasma IL-1B were also observed.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  20
C3aR knockout mice develop early onset and progressive retinal degeneration in comparison to wildtype. Increased cell death and retinal dysfunction upon light exposure was observed.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  39
C3aR knockout mice have been demonstrated to have reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in models of allergic asthma and respiratory syncytial virus infection. This protection is due to a reduction in C3aR-induced tachykinin release leading to a decreased IL-17A induced TH17 cell population.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  Lung
Technique:  Gene knockouts
References:  8,22
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0002420 abnormal adaptive immunity PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0002465 abnormal eosinophil physiology PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Dgen C3ar1tm1Dgen/C3ar1tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
MGI:1097680  MP:0005334 abnormal fat pad morphology PMID: 19270708 
C3ar1+|C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1+
involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:1097680  MP:0001790 abnormal immune system physiology PMID: 11067891 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008751 abnormal interleukin level PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Dgen C3ar1tm1Dgen/C3ar1tm1Dgen
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
MGI:1097680  MP:0003959 abnormal lean body mass PMID: 19270708 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0002281 abnormal respiratory mucosa goblet cell morphology PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008092 abnormal T-helper 2 cell differentiation PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0005466 abnormal T-helper 2 physiology PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Cge C3ar1tm1Cge/C3ar1tm1Cge
involves: 129S4/SvJae * BALB/c
MGI:1097680  MP:0002335 decreased airway responsiveness PMID: 10984054 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0002335 decreased airway responsiveness PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0005012 decreased eosinophil cell number PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0002492 decreased IgE level PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008495 decreased IgG1 level PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008700 decreased interleukin-4 secretion PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0005517 decreased liver regeneration PMID: 15240660 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0005016 decreased lymphocyte cell number PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0000222 decreased neutrophil cell number PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0004800 decreased susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis PMID: 15383607 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0000921 demyelination PMID: 15383607 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008719 impaired neutrophil recruitment PMID: 12421977 
C3ar1tm1Raw|Cpn1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw,Cpn1tm1Raw/Cpn1tm1Raw
B6.129-C3ar1 Cpn1
MGI:1097680  MGI:2135874  MP:0005088 increased acute inflammation PMID: 19414808 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:1097680  MP:0008641 increased circulating interleukin-1 beta level PMID: 11067891 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0008641 increased circulating interleukin-1 beta level PMID: 15383607 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:1097680  MP:0009763 increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortality PMID: 11067891 
C3ar1+|C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1+
involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:1097680  MP:0009763 increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortality PMID: 11067891 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:1097680  MP:0008735 increased susceptibility to endotoxin shock PMID: 11067891 
C3ar1tm1Raw C3ar1tm1Raw/C3ar1tm1Raw
B6.129X1(B6)-C3ar1
MGI:1097680  MP:0005596 increased susceptibility to type I hypersensitivity reaction PMID: 12421977 
Available Assays
DiscoveRx PathHunter® eXpress C3AR1 U2OS β-Arrestin GPCR Assay (Cat no. 93-0814E3CP0M)
PathHunter® U2OS C3AR1 β-Arrestin Cell Line (Cat no. 93-0814C3)
more info

REFERENCES

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2. Ames RS, Lee D, Foley JJ, Jurewicz AJ, Tornetta MA, Bautsch W, Settmacher B, Klos A, Erhard KF, Cousins RD et al.. (2001) Identification of a selective nonpeptide antagonist of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor that demonstrates antiinflammatory activity in animal models. J. Immunol.166 (10): 6341-8. [PMID:11342658]

3. Ames RS, Nuthulaganti P, Kumar C. (1996) In Xenopus oocytes the human C3a and C5a receptors elicit a promiscuous response to the anaphylatoxins. FEBS Lett.395 (2-3): 157-9. [PMID:8898085]

4. Ames RS, Tornetta MA, Foley JJ, Hugli TE, Sarau HM. (1997) Evidence that the receptor for C4a is distinct from the C3a receptor. Immunopharmacology38 (1-2): 87-92. [PMID:9476119]

5. Banda NK, Hyatt S, Antonioli AH, White JT, Glogowska M, Takahashi K, Merkel TJ, Stahl GL, Mueller-Ortiz S, Wetsel R et al.. (2012) Role of C3a receptors, C5a receptors, and complement protein C6 deficiency in collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice. J. Immunol.188 (3): 1469-78. [PMID:22205026]

6. Bao L, Osawe I, Haas M, Quigg RJ. (2005) Signaling through up-regulated C3a receptor is key to the development of experimental lupus nephritis. J. Immunol.175 (3): 1947-55. [PMID:16034139]

7. Bellows-Peterson ML, Fung HK, Floudas CA, Kieslich CA, Zhang L, Morikis D, Wareham KJ, Monk PN, Hawksworth OA, Woodruff TM. (2012) De novo peptide design with C3a receptor agonist and antagonist activities: theoretical predictions and experimental validation. J. Med. Chem.55 (9): 4159-68. [PMID:22500977]

8. Bera MM, Lu B, Martin TR, Cui S, Rhein LM, Gerard C, Gerard NP. (2011) Th17 cytokines are critical for respiratory syncytial virus-associated airway hyperreponsiveness through regulation by complement C3a and tachykinins. J. Immunol.187 (8): 4245-55. [PMID:21918196]

9. Busch C, Girke G, Kohl B, Stoll C, Lemke M, Krasnici S, Ertel W, Silawal S, John T, Schulze-Tanzil G. (2012) Complement gene expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and the anaphylatoxin C3a in human tenocytes. Mol. Immunol.53 (4): 363-373 [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID:23070120]

10. Bénard M, Raoult E, Vaudry D, Leprince J, Falluel-Morel A, Gonzalez BJ, Galas L, Vaudry H, Fontaine M. (2008) Role of complement anaphylatoxin receptors (C3aR, C5aR) in the development of the rat cerebellum. Mol. Immunol.45 (14): 3767-74. [PMID:18635264]

11. Chao TH, Ember JA, Wang M, Bayon Y, Hugli TE, Ye RD. (1999) Role of the second extracellular loop of human C3a receptor in agonist binding and receptor function. J. Biol. Chem.274 (14): 9721-8. [PMID:10092660]

12. Fischer WH, Hugli TE. (1997) Regulation of B cell functions by C3a and C3a(desArg): suppression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and the polyclonal immune response. J. Immunol.159 (9): 4279-86. [PMID:9379023]

13. Gasque P, Singhrao SK, Neal JW, Wang P, Sayah S, Fontaine M, Morgan BP. (1998) The receptor for complement anaphylatoxin C3a is expressed by myeloid cells and nonmyeloid cells in inflamed human central nervous system: analysis in multiple sclerosis and bacterial meningitis. J. Immunol.160 (7): 3543-54. [PMID:9531317]

14. Guo Q, Subramanian H, Gupta K, Ali H. (2011) Regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells by G protein coupled receptor kinases. PLoS ONE6 (7): e22559. [PMID:21799898]

15. Hannedouche S, Beck V, Leighton-Davies J, Beibel M, Roma G, Oakeley EJ, Lannoy V, Bernard J, Hamon J, Barbieri S et al.. (2013) Identification of the C3a receptor (C3AR1) as the target of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 in rodent cells. J. Biol. Chem.288 (38): 27434-43. [PMID:23940034]

16. Hartmann K, Henz BM, Krüger-Krasagakes S, Köhl J, Burger R, Guhl S, Haase I, Lippert U, Zuberbier T. (1997) C3a and C5a stimulate chemotaxis of human mast cells. Blood89 (8): 2863-70. [PMID:9108406]

17. Helske S, Oksjoki R, Lindstedt KA, Lommi J, Turto H, Werkkala K, Kupari M, Kovanen PT. (2008) Complement system is activated in stenotic aortic valves. Atherosclerosis196 (1): 190-200. [PMID:17498719]

18. Hollmann TJ, Haviland DL, Kildsgaard J, Watts K, Wetsel RA. (1998) Cloning, expression, sequence determination, and chromosome localization of the mouse complement C3a anaphylatoxin receptor gene. Mol. Immunol.35 (3): 137-48. [PMID:9694514]

19. Ignatius A, Schoengraf P, Kreja L, Liedert A, Recknagel S, Kandert S, Brenner RE, Schneider M, Lambris JD, Huber-Lang M. (2011) Complement C3a and C5a modulate osteoclast formation and inflammatory response of osteoblasts in synergism with IL-1β. J. Cell. Biochem.112 (9): 2594-605. [PMID:21598302]

20. Kildsgaard J, Hollmann TJ, Matthews KW, Bian K, Murad F, Wetsel RA. (2000) Cutting edge: targeted disruption of the C3a receptor gene demonstrates a novel protective anti-inflammatory role for C3a in endotoxin-shock. J. Immunol.165 (10): 5406-9. [PMID:11067891]

21. Kwan WH, Hashimoto D, Paz-Artal E, Ostrow K, Greter M, Raedler H, Medof ME, Merad M, Heeger PS. (2012) Antigen-presenting cell-derived complement modulates graft-versus-host disease. J. Clin. Invest.122 (6): 2234-8. [PMID:22585573]

22. Lajoie S, Lewkowich IP, Suzuki Y, Clark JR, Sproles AA, Dienger K, Budelsky AL, Wills-Karp M. (2010) Complement-mediated regulation of the IL-17A axis is a central genetic determinant of the severity of experimental allergic asthma. Nat. Immunol.11 (10): 928-35. [PMID:20802484]

23. Lim R, Lappas M. (2012) Decreased expression of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) in human placentas from severe preeclamptic pregnancies. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.165 (2): 194-8. [PMID:22901903]

24. Monsinjon T, Gasque P, Chan P, Ischenko A, Brady JJ, Fontaine MC. (2003) Regulation by complement C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins of cytokine production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. FASEB J.17 (9): 1003-14. [PMID:12773483]

25. Niebuhr M, Bäumer W, Kietzmann M, Wichmann K, Heratizadeh A, Werfel T. (2012) Participation of complement 3a receptor (C3aR) in the sensitization phase of Th2 mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Exp. Dermatol.21 (1): 52-6. [PMID:22151392]

26. Peng Q, Li K, Anderson K, Farrar CA, Lu B, Smith RA, Sacks SH, Zhou W. (2008) Local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of dendritic cells through C3a-C3aR interaction. Blood111 (4): 2452-61. [PMID:18056835]

27. Purwar R, Wittmann M, Zwirner J, Oppermann M, Kracht M, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Gutzmer R, Werfel T. (2006) Induction of C3 and CCL2 by C3a in keratinocytes: a novel autocrine amplification loop of inflammatory skin reactions. J. Immunol.177 (7): 4444-50. [PMID:16982879]

28. Rahpeymai Y, Hietala MA, Wilhelmsson U, Fotheringham A, Davies I, Nilsson AK, Zwirner J, Wetsel RA, Gerard C, Pekny M et al.. (2006) Complement: a novel factor in basal and ischemia-induced neurogenesis. EMBO J.25 (6): 1364-74. [PMID:16498410]

29. Sayah S, Jauneau AC, Patte C, Tonon MC, Vaudry H, Fontaine M. (2003) Two different transduction pathways are activated by C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins on astrocytes. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.112 (1-2): 53-60. [PMID:12670702]

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36. Venkatesha RT, Berla Thangam E, Zaidi AK, Ali H. (2005) Distinct regulation of C3a-induced MCP-1/CCL2 and RANTES/CCL5 production in human mast cells by extracellular signal regulated kinase and PI3 kinase. Mol. Immunol.42 (5): 581-7. [PMID:15607817]

37. Vibhuti A, Gupta K, Subramanian H, Guo Q, Ali H. (2011) Distinct and shared roles of β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells. PLoS ONE6 (5): e19585. [PMID:21589858]

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39. Yu M, Zou W, Peachey NS, McIntyre TM, Liu J. (2012) A novel role of complement in retinal degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.53 (12): 7684-92. [PMID:23074214]

To cite this database page, please use the following:

Owen Hawksworth, Liam Coulthard, Trent Woodruff.
Complement peptide receptors: C3a receptor. Last modified on 02/05/2014. Accessed on 25/10/2014. IUPHAR database (IUPHAR-DB), http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=31.

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