Nomenclature: FZD4

Family: Frizzled Class GPCRs

Annotation status:  image of a green circle Annotated and expert reviewed. Please contact us if you can help with updates. 

Contents

Gene and Protein Information
Frizzled family G protein-coupled receptor
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 7 537 11q14.2 FZD4 frizzled family receptor 4 8
Mouse 7 537 7 E1 Fzd4 frizzled homolog 4 (Drosophila) 21
Rat 7 538 1q32 Fzd4 frizzled family receptor 4
Previous and Unofficial Names
frizzled homolog 4 (Drosophila)
Fz4
Hfz4
hFz4F
Frizzled-4
CD344
EVR1
frizzled (Drosophila) homolog 4
exudative vitreoretinopathy 1
frizzled 4, seven transmembrane spanning receptor
frizzled family receptor 4
frizzled homolog 4
frizzled receptor 4
frizzled receptor 4 (Drosophila)
fz-4
rFz4
Database Links
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
GeneCards
GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project
HomoloGene
Human Protein Reference Database
InterPro
KEGG Gene
OMIM
Orphanet Gene
PharmGKB Gene
PhosphoSitePlus
Protein Ontology (PRO)
RefSeq Nucleotide
RefSeq Protein
TreeFam
UniGene Hs.
UniProtKB
Wikipedia
Natural/Endogenous Ligands
Wnt
Agonists
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Affinity Units Reference
norrin {Sp: Mouse} Mm Full agonist 8.4 pKd 22
pKd 8.4 [22]
Agonist Comments
Due to the lack of purified and biologically active WNTs little information on the specificity and pharmacology of FZD-WNT interaction is available. Extensive and quantitative binding assays have not been performed with mammalian FZDs. Evidence for the direct activation/interaction of FZD4 with WNT-5A [2], WNT-3A [14], WNT-2 [9] and the FZD4 specific ligand Norrin [22] exist.
Antagonist Comments
Amyloid-β peptide binds with high affinity to FZD4-CRD and FZD5-Crd and inhibits β-catenin dependent signalling [11]. sFRP1 interacts with WNTs and FZD4-CRD [3].
Primary Transduction Mechanisms
Comments: 
The involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins has not yet been addressed for FZD4 in detail.

The following papers contain some information on the FZD4 signalling pathways:
FZD4/non-canonical signalling [13]
FZD4/canonical WNT signalling (β-catenin dependent) [7,13]
References:  7,13
Tissue Distribution
Adult: heart, skeletal muscle, ovary > liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas.
Fetal: kidney > lung
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  8
Primary endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells.
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  12
Increased expression in prostate cancer.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Immunocytochemistry
References:  1
Increased expression in ulcerative colitis.
Species:  Human
Technique:  Microarray analysis
References:  23
Colon (colonic mucosa, normal mucose derived colon cells, NCM 460, endothelial cell line (EaHy926), tumorigenic colon cancer cell lines (including RKO and HCT116 but not Colo205)).
Species:  Human
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  15
Cervical cancer cell line (HeLa S3).
Species:  Human
Technique:  Northern blot
References:  8
During development: small intestine and colon.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  in situ hybridisation
References:  4
Adult: brain, eye, heart, kidney, liver, lung, testis.
Developing brain: choroid plexus.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RNAse protection assay, in situ hybridization
References:  21
Hematopoietic progenitor cell line (32/Flt3-ITD).
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  19
Cerebellum (Ndph knock-out mice)
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  10
During development: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons.
Species:  Mouse
Technique:  FACS, quantitative PCR
References:  16
Ovary cells.
Species:  Rat
Technique:  RT-PCR
References:  15
Expression Datasets

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Log average relative transcript abundance in mouse tissues measured by qPCR from Regard, J.B., Sato, I.T., and Coughlin, S.R. (2008). Anatomical profiling of G protein-coupled receptor expression. Cell, 135(3): 561-71. [PMID:18984166] [Raw data: website]

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Functional Assays
Measurement of FZD4 receptor internalization in HEK293 cells. This requires Dvl2, β-arrestin 2, PKC and the presence of WNT-5A agonist bound to FZD4.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells.
Response measured:  FZD4-GFP internalization
References:  2
Measurement of β-catenin stabilization in HEK293 cells. Mouse FZD4 activates the β-catenin signalling (canonical-signalling) pathway after WNT-5A stimulation in the presence of LRP5.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells.
Response measured:  β-catenin stabilization
References:  13
Measurement of TCF/LEF transcriptional activity, using the TopFlash reporter, in HEK293 cells transfected with mouse FZD4, LRP5 and norrin.
Species:  Human
Tissue:  HEK293 cells.
Response measured:  Activation of TCF/LEF promotor activity.
References:  22
Physiological Functions
The norrin-FZD4 signalling system plays a central role in vascular development in the eye and ear.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  retina, cochlea
References:  22
FZD4 plays a role in intestine development and homeostasis.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue:  intestine
References:  4
Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression
FZD4 knock-out mice show progressive cerebellar degeneration associated with ataxia, absence of the skeletal muscle sheath around the oesophagus associated with dysfunction, and progressive deafness because of defects in the peripheral auditory system.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Transgenesis
References:  20
FZD4 knock-out mice are infertile and show defective corpora lutea formation and function.
Species:  Mouse
Tissue: 
Technique:  Transgenesis
References:  5
Phenotypes, Alleles and Disease Models Mouse data from MGI

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Allele Composition & genetic background Accession Phenotype Id Phenotype Reference
Fzd4+|Fzd4tm1Nat|Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc|Ubbtm2Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4+,Ubbtm2Nat/Ubbtm2Nat,Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc/?
involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:108520  MGI:2656537  MGI:98888  MP:0000260 abnormal angiogenesis PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:108520  MGI:2450309  MP:0004950 abnormal brain vasculature morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0004950 abnormal brain vasculature morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000886 abnormal cerebellar granule layer PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000849 abnormal cerebellum morphology PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0000849 abnormal cerebellum morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0002679 abnormal corpus luteum PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4+|Fzd4tm1Nat|Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc|Ubbtm2Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4+,Ubbtm2Nat/Ubbtm2Nat,Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc/?
involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:108520  MGI:2656537  MGI:98888  MP:0009869 abnormal descending aorta morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001664 abnormal digestion PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000469 abnormal esophageal squamous epithelium morphology PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000467 abnormal esophagus morphology PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:108520  MGI:2450309  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(rx3-cre)1Mjam Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(rx3-cre)1Mjam/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MGI:3665327  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0005551 abnormal eye electrophysiology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001406 abnormal gait PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0003690 abnormal glial cell physiology PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:108520  MGI:2450309  MP:0009619 abnormal optokinetic reflex PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0009619 abnormal optokinetic reflex PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000042 abnormal organ of Corti PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001504 abnormal posture PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0002792 abnormal retinal vasculature morphology PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:108520  MGI:2450309  MP:0002792 abnormal retinal vasculature morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0002792 abnormal retinal vasculature morphology PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000048 abnormal stria vascularis PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004368 abnormal stria vascularis vasculature morphology PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000259 abnormal vascular development PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001134 absent corpus luteum PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0006359 absent startle reflex PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001393 ataxia PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000851 cerebellum hypoplasia PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004362 cochlear hair cell degeneration PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004398 cochlear inner hair cell degeneration PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004404 cochlear outer hair cell degeneration PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004765 decreased brainstem auditory evoked potential PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0005185 decreased circulating progesterone level PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000880 decreased Purkinje cell number PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0009402 decreased skeletal muscle fiber diameter PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001489 decreased startle reflex PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0000371 diluted coat color PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4+|Fzd4tm1Nat|Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc|Ubbtm2Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4+,Ubbtm2Nat/Ubbtm2Nat,Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc/?
involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:108520  MGI:2656537  MGI:98888  MP:0003984 embryonic growth retardation PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4+|Fzd4tm1Nat|Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc|Ubbtm2Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4+,Ubbtm2Nat/Ubbtm2Nat,Tg(Sox2-cre)1Amc/?
involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CBA
MGI:108520  MGI:2656537  MGI:98888  MP:0008762 embryonic lethality PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004545 enlarged esophagus PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001728 failure of embryo implantation PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001926 female infertility PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001914 hemorrhage PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001505 hunched posture PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001133 impaired luteal cell differentiation PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0003356 impaired luteinization PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm1Nat|Fzd4tm2.1Nat|Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat,Tg(Tek-cre)1Ywa/?
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL
MGI:108520  MGI:2450309  MP:0006243 impaired pupillary reflex PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0006243 impaired pupillary reflex PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001925 male infertility PMID: 16093361 
Fzd4tm2.1Nat Fzd4tm2.1Nat/Fzd4tm2.1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ
MGI:108520  MP:0002169 no abnormal phenotype detected PMID: 19837032 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001289 persistence of hyaloid vascular system PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0002083 premature death PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0006185 retinal hemorrhage PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001407 short stride length PMID: 11425903 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0004363 stria vascularis degeneration PMID: 15035989 
Fzd4tm1Nat Fzd4tm1Nat/Fzd4tm1Nat
involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6
MGI:108520  MP:0001263 weight loss PMID: 11425903 
Clinically-Relevant Mutations and Pathophysiology
Disease:  Retinopathy of prematurity
OMIM:  133780
Orphanet:  90050
References: 
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
Orphanet:  91495
References:  18
Mutations not determined
Disease:  Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy
OMIM:  133780
Orphanet:  891
Comments: 
References:  17
Mutations not determined
Biologically Significant Variants
Type:  Single nucleotide polymorphism
Species:  Human
Description:  In FEVR, wild-type FZD receptors are trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum by oligomerization with mutant FZD4.
References:  6

REFERENCES

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5. Hsieh M, Boerboom D, Shimada M, Lo Y, Parlow AF, Luhmann UF, Berger W, Richards JS. (2005) Mice null for Frizzled4 (Fzd4-/-) are infertile and exhibit impaired corpora lutea formation and function. Biol Reprod73: 1135-1146. [PMID:16093361]

6. Kaykas A, Yang-Snyder J, Héroux M, Shah KV, Bouvier M, Moon RT. (2004) Mutant Frizzled 4 associated with vitreoretinopathy traps wild-type Frizzled in the endoplasmic reticulum by oligomerization. Nat Cell Biol6: 52-58. [PMID:14688793]

7. Khan NI, Bradstock KF, Bendall LJ. (2007) Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway mediates growth and survival in B-cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol138: 338-348. [PMID:17614820]

8. Kirikoshi H, Sagara N, Koike J, Tanaka K, Sekihara H, Hirai M, Katoh M. (1999) Molecular cloning and characterization of human Frizzled-4 on chromosome 11q14-q21. Biochem Biophys Res Commun264: 955-961. [PMID:10544037]

9. Klein D, Demory A, Peyre F, Kroll J, Augustin HG, Helfrich W, Kzhyshkowska J, Schledzewski K, Arnold B, Goerdt S. (2008) Wnt2 acts as a cell type-specific, autocrine growth factor in rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells cross-stimulating the VEGF pathway. Hepatology47: 1018-1031. [PMID:18302287]

10. Luhmann UF, Neidhardt J, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Schäfer NF, Glaus E, Feil S, Berger W. (2008) Vascular changes in the cerebellum of Norrin /Ndph knockout mice correlate with high expression of Norrin and Frizzled-4. Eur J Neurosci27: 2619-2628. [PMID:18547247]

11. Magdesian MH, Carvalho MM, Mendes FA, Saraiva LM, Juliano MA, Juliano L, Garcia-Abreu J, Ferreira ST. (2008) Amyloid-beta binds to the extracellular cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled and inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. J Biol Chem283: 9359-9368. [PMID:18234671]

12. Masckauchán TN, Shawber CJ, Funahashi Y, Li CM, Kitajewski J. (2005) Wnt/beta-catenin signaling induces proliferation, survival and interleukin-8 in human endothelial cells. Angiogenesis8: 43-51. [PMID:16132617]

13. Mikels AJ, Nusse R. (2006) Purified Wnt5a protein activates or inhibits beta-catenin-TCF signaling depending on receptor context. PLoS Biol4: e115-e115. [PMID:16602827]

14. Pan W, Choi SC, Wang H, Qin Y, Volpicelli-Daley L, Swan L, Lucast L, Khoo C, Zhang X, Li L, Abrams CS, Sokol SY, Wu D. (2008) Wnt3a-mediated formation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate regulates LRP6 phosphorylation. Science321: 1350-1353. [PMID:18772438]

15. Planutis K, Planutiene M, Moyer MP, Nguyen AV, Pérez CA, Holcombe RF. (2007) Regulation of norrin receptor frizzled-4 by Wnt2 in colon-derived cells. BMC Cell Biol8: 12-12. [PMID:17386109]

16. Rawal N, Castelo-Branco G, Sousa KM, Kele J, Kobayashi K, Okano H, Arenas E. (2006) Dynamic temporal and cell type-specific expression of Wnt signaling components in the developing midbrain. Exp Cell Res312: 1626-1636. [PMID:16510140]

17. Robitaille J, MacDonald ML, Kaykas A, Sheldahl LC, Zeisler J, Dubé MP, Zhang LH, Singaraja RR, Guernsey DL, Zheng B, Siebert LF, Hoskin-Mott A, Trese MT, Pimstone SN, Shastry BS, Moon RT, Hayden MR, Goldberg YP, Samuels ME. (2002) Mutant frizzled-4 disrupts retinal angiogenesis in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Nat Genet32: 326-330. [PMID:12172548]

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To cite this database page, please use the following:

Jacomijn Dijksterhuis, Matthias Lauth, Tilman Polonio, Gunnar Schulte.
Frizzled Class GPCRs: FZD4. Last modified on 17/03/2014. Accessed on 03/09/2014. IUPHAR database (IUPHAR-DB), http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=232.

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